
Linear Motion Bearings
Features :
1) Size: 4 ~ 101.6mm
2) Series: LM, LME, LMB
3) "UU" means rubber seals on the both sides of the bearing
4) The above series including the standard type, clearance adjustment type and open type
Applications :
Linear motion ball bearings are used widely in the defense, precision machinery, medical instrument, chemical, printing, agriculture, robotic, automatic production line et.
Load Rating 
Basic Dynamic Load Rating (C)
This term is arrived at based on an evaluation of a number of
identical linear systems individually run in the same conditions,
if 90% of them can run with the load ( with a constant value in a
constant direction ) for a distance of 50 km without damage caused
by rolling fatigue. This is the basis of the rating.
Allowable Static Moment (M)
This term defines the allowable limit value of static moment load,
with reference to the amount of permanent deformation similar to
that used for evaluation of basic rated load (Co).
Static Safety Factor (fs)
This factor is used based on the application condition as shown in
Table 1.
Table 1. Static Safety Factors  

Basic Static Load Rating (Co)
This term defines a static load such that, at the contacting
position where the maximum stress is exercised, the sum of the
permanent deformation of the rolling elements and that of the
rolling plane is 0.0001 time of the diameter of the rolling
elements.
Rating Life of the Linear System
As long as the linear system reciprocates while being loaded,
continuous stress acts on the linear system to cause flaking on the
rolling bodies and planes because of material fatigue. The
travelling distance of linear system until the fist flaking occurs
is called the life of the systems. The life of the system varies
even for the systems of the same dimensions, structure, material,
heat treatment and processing method, when used in the same
conditions. This variation is brought about from the essential
variations in the material fatigue itself. The rating life defined
bellow is used as an index for the life expectancy of the linear
system.
Rating Life (L)
Rating life is the total travelling distance that 90% of a group of
systems of the same size can reach without causing any flaking when
they operate under the same conditions.
The rating life can be obtained from the following equation with
the basic dynamic load rating and the load on the linear system:
Consideration and influence of vibration impact loads and distribution of load should be taken into account when designing a linear motion system, It is difficult to calculate the actual load. The rating life is also affected by the operating temperature. In these conditions, the expression(1) is arranged as follows:
The rating life in hours can be calculated by obtaining the travelling distance per unit time. The rating life in hours can be obtained from the following expression when the stroke length and the number of strokes are constant:
Hardness Factor (fH)
The shaft must be sufficiently hardened when a linear bushing is
used. If not properly hardened, permissible load is lowered and the
life of the bushing will be shortened.
Temperature Coefficient (fr)
If the temperature of the linear system exceeds 100C, hardness of
the linear system and the shaft lowers to decrease the permissible
load compared to that of the linear system used at room
temperature. As a result, the abnormal temperature rise shortens
the rating life.
Contact Coefficient (fc)
Generally two or more linear bushings are used on one shaft. Thus,
the load on each linear system differs depending on each processing
accuracy. Because the linear bushings are not loaded equally, the
number of linear bushings per shaft changes the permissible load
off the system.
Table 2 Contact Coefficient

Load Coefficient (fw)
When calculating the load on the linear system, it is necessary to
accurately obtain object weight, inertial force based on motion
speed, moment load, and each transition as time passes. However, it
is difficult to calculate those values accurately because
reciprocating motion involves the repetition of start and stop as
well as vibration and impact. A more practical approach is to
obtain the load coefficient by taking the actual operating
conditions into account.
Table 3 Load Coefficient
The static frictional resistance of the TOB linear system is so low as to be only slightly different from the kinetic frictional resistance, enabling smooth linear movement from low to high speeds. In general, the frictional resistance is expressed by the following equation.
The frictional resistance of each TOB linear system depends on the
model, load weight, speed, and lubricant. The sealing resistance
depends on the lip interference and lubricant, regardless of the
load weight. The sealing resistance of one linear system is about
200 to 500 gf. The coefficient of friction depends on the load
weight, moment load, and preload. Table 6 shows the coefficient of
kinetic friction of each type of linear system which has been
installed and lubricated properly and applied with normal load (P/C
0.2)
Table 5 Coefficient of Linear System Friction ( )
The ambient working temperature range for each TOB linear system
depends on the model. Consult TOB on use outside the recommended
temperature range.
Temperature conversion equation
Table 6 Ambient Working Temperature
Using TOB linear systems without lubrication increases the abrasion of the rolling elements, shortening the life span. The TOB linear systems therefore require appropriate lubrication. For lubrication TOB recommends turbine oil conforming to ISO Standards G32 to G68 or lithium base soap grease No.1. Some TOB linear systems are sealed to block dust out and seal lubricant in. If used in a harsh or corrosive environment, however, apply a protective cover to the part involving linear motion.
The TOB linear bushing consists of an outer cylinder, ball
retainer, balls and two end rings. The ball retainer which holds
the balls in the recirculating trucks in held inside the outer
cylinder by end rings.
Those parts are assembled to optimize their required functions.
The outer cylinder is maintained sufficient hardness by heat
treatment, therefore if ensures the bushing projected travel life
and satisfactory durability.
The ball retainer is made from steel or synthetics resin. The steel
retainer has high rigidity, obtained by heat treat meant.
The synthetics resin retainer can reduce running noise. The user
can select the optimum type for meeting the user's service
conditions.
1.High Precision and Rigidity
The TOB linear bushing is produced from a solid steel outer
cylinder and incorporates an industrial strength resin retainer.
2.Ease of Assembly
The standard type of TOB linear bushing can be loaded from any
direction. Precision control is possible using only the shaft
supporter, and the mounting surface can be machined easily.
3.Ease of Replacement
TOB linear bushings of each type are completely interchangeable
because of their standardized dimensions and strict precision
control. Replacement because of wear or damage is therefore easy
and accurate.
4.Variety of Types
TOB offers a full line of linear bushing: the standard, integral
singleretainer closed type, the clearance adjustable type and the
open types. The user can choose from among these according to the
application requirements to be met.
Example
Note that precision of inscribed circle diameters and outside diameters for the clearance adjustable type ( AJ) and the open type ( OP) indicates the value obtained before the corresponding type is subjected to cutting process.
The lift (L) of a linear bushing can be obtained from the following equation with the basic dynamic load rating and the load applied to the bush:
The lifespan(Ln) of a linear bushing in hours can be obtained by
calculating the traveling distance per unit time. The lifespan can
be obtained from the following equation if the stroke length and
the number of strokes are constant:
The TOB linear bushing includes ball circuits that are spaced
equally and circumferentially. The load rating varies according to
the loaded position on the circumference.
The value the dimension table indicates the load rating when the
load is placed on top of one ball circuit. If the TOB linear
bushing is used will two ball circuits loaded uniformly, the load
rating will be greater. The following table shows the values by the
number of ball circuits in such cases:
Table 1
1. Obtaining the rated life L and lifespan Lh of the TOB linear
bushing used in the following conditions:
Linear bushing: LM20
Stroke length: 50mm
Number of strokes per minute: 50mm
Load per bush: 490N
The basic dynamic load rating of the linear bushing is 882N from
the dimension table. From equation(1), therefore, the rated life L
is obtained as follows:
From equation(2), the lifespan Lh is obtained as follows:
2.Selecting the linear bushing type satisfying the following
conditions:
Number of linear bushing used: 4
Stroke length: 1m
Traveling speed: 10m/min
Number of strokes per minute: 5cpm
Lifespan: 10,000hr
Total load: 980N
From equation(2), the traveling distance within the lifespan is
obtained as follows:
From equation(1), the basic dynamic load rating is obtained as follows:
Assume the following with a pair of shafts each with two linear bushings:
As a result, LM30 is selected from the dimension table as the TOB linear bushing type satisfying the value of C
When a standardtype TOB linear bushing is used with a shaft,
inadequate clearance, adjustment may cause early bush failure
and/or poor, rough traveling. The clearance adjustable linear bush
and open linear bush can be clearance adjusted when assembled in
the housing which can control the outside cylinder diameter.
However, too much clearance adjustment increases the deformation of
the outside cylinder,to affect its precision and life. Therefore,
the appropriate clearance between the bush and shaft, and clearance
between the bush and housing are required according to the
application. Table 2 shows recommended fit of the bush:
Table2
Note: The clearance may be zero or negative. Please attention the movement.
To optimize performance of the TOB linear bushing high precision of
the shaft and housing is required.
1.Shaft
The rolling balls in the TOB linear bushing are in point contact
with the shaft surface. Therefore, the shaft dimensions, tolerance,
surface finish, and hardness greatly affect the traveling
performance of the bush. The shaft should be manufactured with due
attention to the following points:
1) Since the surface finish critically affects smooth rolling of
balls, grind the shaft at 1. 5 S or better
2) The best hardness of the shaft is HRC 60 to 64. Hardness less
than HRC 60 decreases the life considerably, and hence reduces the
permissible load. On the other hand, hardness over HRC 64
accelerates ball wear.
3) The shaft diameter for the clearance adjustable linear bush and
open linear bush should as much as possible be of the lower value
of the inscribed circle diameter in the specification table. Do not
set the shaft diameter to the upper value.
4) Zero clearance or negative clearance increases the frictional
resistance slightly. If the negative clearance is too tight, the
deformation of the outside cylinder will become larger, to shorten
the bush life.
2. Housing
There is a wide range of housing differing in design, machining ,
and mounting. For the fitness and shapes of housings, see Table 2
and the following section on mounting.
When inserting the linear bush into the housing. do not hit the linear bush on the side ring holding the retainer but apply the cylinder circumference with a proper jig and push the liner bush into the housing by hand or lightly knock it in. ( See Fig.1) In inserting the shaft after mounting the bush, be careful not to shock the balls. Note that if two shafts are used in parallel, the parallelism is the most important factor to assure the smooth linear movement. Take care in setting the shafts.
Examples of Mounting
The popular way to mount a linear bush is to operate it with an
appropriate interference. It is recommended, however, to make a
loose fit in principle because otherwise precision is apt to be
minimized. The following examples( Figs.2 to 6)show assembling of
the inserted bush in terms of designing and mounting, for
reference.
LM , LME , LMB Linear Motion Bearings POM Size: 4 ~ 101.6mm For Medical Instrument Images 